The right to environment is viewed as a concept of human rights third generation in the international arena. Since the environment is recognized as a common heritage of humanity in international documents so as not to endanger the lives of present and future generations, damage to this rich heritage must be prevented or reduced using explicit criminal law requirements in treaties and conventions. The study depicts the criminal protection of the right to a clean environment through library tools with a descriptive-analytical method aimed at presenting the governments’ role in international environmental conventions. Governments only have civil liability for environmental degradation. However, considering the environment as a common heritage of humanity, crimes against it are considered as crimes against humanity. On the other hand, these crimes jeopardize international peace and security; therefore, the wrongdoing government can be prosecuted under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter and convicted to paying compensation.